The paper presents an optimal fuzzy logic control algorithm for vibration mitigation of buildings using magneto-rheological (MR) dampers. MR dampers are semi-active devices and are monitored using external voltage supply. The voltage monitoring of MR damper is accomplished using evolutionary fuzzy system, where the fuzzy system is optimized using evolutionary algorithms (EAs). A micro-genetic algorithm (mu-GA) and a particle swarm optimization (PSO) are used to optimize the FLC parameters. Two cases of optimal FLCs are shown. One where FLC is optimized keeping the rule base predefined and in the other case, FLC rule base is also optimized along with other FLC parameters. The FLC rule base and membership function parameters are optimized using 10 variables. Fuzzy controllers with a predefined rule base and with an optimal rule base are applied to a single degree of freedom (SDOF) and a multi-degree of freedom (MDOF) system. Finally, the study evaluates the performance of the fuzzy controller optimized off-line, on a three storey building model under seismic excitations. The main advantage of using FLC to drive the MR damper voltage is that it provides a gradual and smooth change in voltage. Consequently, the present approach provides a better vibration control for structures under earthquake excitations. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.