A portfolio optimization model with three objectives and discrete variables


We formulate the portfolio selection as a tri-objective optimization problem so as to find tradeoffs between risk, return and the number of securities in the portfolio. Furthermore, quantity and class constraints are introduced into the model in order to limit the proportion of the portfolio invested in assets with common characteristics and to avoid very small holdings. Since the proposed portfolio selection model involves mixed integer decision variables and multiple objectives finding the exact efficient frontier may be very hard. Nevertheless, finding a good approximation of the efficient surface which provides the investor with a diverse set of portfolios capturing all possible tradeoffs between the objectives within limited computational time is usually acceptable. We experiment with the current state of the art evolutionary multiobjective optimization techniques, namely the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II), Pareto Envelope-based Selection Algorithm (PESA) and Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm 2 (SPEA2), for solving the mixed-integer multiobjective optimization problem and provide a performance comparison among them using metrics proposed by the community.