### Optimal Design of Sensor Placement in Water Distribution Networks

Abstract

In this study we provide a methodology for the optimal design of water sensor placement in water distribution networks. The optimization algorithm used is based on a simulation-optimization and a single-objective function approach which incorporates multiple factors used in the design of the system. In this sense the proposed model mimics a multiobjective approach and yields the final design without explicitly specifying a preference among the multiple objectives of the problem. A reliability constraint concept is also introduced into the optimization model such that the minimum number of sensors and their optimal placement can be identified in order to satisfy a prespecified reliability criterion for the network. Progressive genetic algorithm approach is used for the solution of the model. The algorithm works on a subset of the complete set of junctions present in the system and the final solution is obtained through the evolution of subdomain sets. The proposed algorithm is applied to the two test networks to assess the selected design, The results of the proposed solution are discussed comparatively with the outcome of other solutions that were submitted to a water distribution systems analysis symposium. These comparisons indicate that the algorithm proposed here is an effective approach in solving this problem.