### Alternative Decision Making in Water Distribution Network with NSGA-II

Abstract

Cost of effective design or rehabilitation of the pipe networks depends largely on the available budget and satisfying pressures expected at the demand nodes. With the available market pipe sizes, one or more solutions of the same cost, the least cost, and simultaneously meeting the pressure constraints can be obtained from EPANET, a water distribution network simulation model, coupled with an optimization algorithm. Often, however, the least cost may be prohibitive from the overall budget consideration especially in developing countries and a less optimal solution is therefore the only option. The study shows a scheme in which solution selection is made, among solutions, which (1) is within allowable budget; and (2) yields acceptable total pressure deficit distributed more equally at several nodes instead of loaded on one or a few nodes only. A multiobjective optimization algorithm (NSGA-II) is coupled with water distribution network simulation software (EPANET) to provide the much needed Pareto front of the cost and nodal pressure deficit. A two-looped simple network is used to demonstrate the application of the scheme.