### Pareto-Optimal Conceptual Design of the Structural Layout of Buildings Using a Multicriteria Genetic Algorithm

Abstract

This article presents a computational procedure for multicriteria optimal conceptual design of the structural layout of buildings subject to given specifications and requirements. Two objective criteria are considered for evaluating alternative designs. The first objective concerns minimizing the building project cost through minimization of a function defining the combined costs of the building structural system and the land for the building site. The second objective concerns optimizing the flexibility of floor space usage, which is a qualitative criterion that is given a quantitative form through minimization of an exponential function that relates tributary load area to the spacing of columns. A multicriteria genetic algorithm (MGA) is applied to solve the biobjective conceptual building layout design problem using Pareto optimization theory . The MGA process is shown to be similar to that of the simple genetic algorithm, except that the fitness evaluation of candidate designs is based on a distance metric related to the Pareto-optimal set. A variable-mutation technique is introduced to maintain genetic diversity and to accelerate the stochastic search for the global optimum. An example conceptual building layout design is presented using the MGA, and the applicability and efficiency of the developed computational conceptual design procedure are discussed.