Robust Multi-Objective Optimization for Water Distribution System Design Using a Meta-Metaheuristic


The design of an urban water distribution system (WDS) is a challenging problem involving multiple objectives. The goal of robust multi-objective optimization for WDS design is to find the set of solutions which embodies an acceptable trade-off between system cost and reliability, so that the ideal solution may be selected for a given budget. In addition to satisfying consumer needs, a system must be built to accommodate multiple demand loading conditions, withstand component failures and allow surplus capacity for growth. In a developmental setting, WDS robustness becomes even more crucial, owing to the limited availability of resources, especially for maintenance. Recent optimization studies have achieved success using multi-objective evolutionary algorithms, such as the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II). However, the multi-objective design of a large WDS within a reasonable timeframe remains a formidable problem, owing to the extremely high computational complexity of the problem. In this paper, a meta-algorithm called AMALGAM is applied for the first time to WDS design. AMALGAM uses multiple metaheuristics simultaneously in an attempt to improve optimization performance. Additionally, a Jumping-gene Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II-JG) is also applied for the first time to WDS design. These two algorithms were tested against some other metaheuristics (including NSGA-II and a new greedy algorithm) with respect to a number of benchmark systems documented in the literature, and AMALGAM demonstrated the best performance overall, while NSGA-II-JG fared worse than the ordinary NSGA-II. Large cost savings and reliability improvements are demonstrated for a real WDS developmental case study in South Africa.