Sensitivity of Optimal Tradeoffs between Cost and Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Water Distribution Systems to Electricity Tariff and Generation


Increased awareness of climate change has shifted the focus of water distribution system (WDS) optimization research from cost minimization only to the incorporation of energy or associated greenhouse gas (GHG) minimization. In this study, a sensitivity analysis is conducted to investigate the effect of electricity tariff and generation (emission factors) on the results of multiobjective WDS optimization accounting for both total economic cost (both capital and operating costs) and GHGs. A multiobjective genetic algorithm-based optimization approach is used to conduct the analysis. The results show that electricity tariff has a significant effect on the total economic cost of WDSs and the selection of optimal solutions. In contrast, the changes of emission factors in the future have a significant effect on the total GHGs from WDSs. However, it does not alter the final solutions on the Pareto-optimal front.