Owing to the conflict encountered between the two objectives of fixed cost in reservoir installation and operating cost in time-varying water deficit, multiobjective planning of surface water resources is a difficult job. Instead of combining these two objectives into just one objective using the weighting factor approach, this investigation proposes a novel method by integrating a multiobjective genetic algorithm (MOGA) with constrained differential dynamic programming (CDDP). A MOGA is employed to generate the various combinations of reservoir capacity and estimate the noninferior solution set. However, applying this algorithm to solve the dynamics of the operating cost, the number of variables increasing with time will dramatically increase the use of computational resources. Consequently, the CDDP is herein adopted to distribute optimal releases among reservoirs to satisfy water demand as much as possible. Next, the effectiveness of the proposed methodology is verified by solving a multiobjective planning problem of surface water in southern Taiwan. This real application demonstrates that MOGA can be linked with CDDP to resolve a complex water resources problem. Additionally, the ability of MOGA on addressing multiple objectives simultaneously without converting to a weighted objective function provides the opportunity for significant advancement in multiobjective optimization. Finally, this investigation also proposes three suitable strategies of reservoir construction to decision makers With budget concerns through the analysis of all noninferior solutions.